Peasant Movements in India | Download PDF

Scholarship Examination in India

There are two views on peasant movements: one, that these movements originated only after independence and are purely social and cultural in nature; two, these movements existed long before inde­pendence and were against colonial rulers as well as zamindars and money-lenders. 

Read here about the complete list of Peasant Movements in India which is important for IBPS Bank Exams, RRB Railway Exams, UPSC, SSC. TSPSC, APSPSC and all Competitive Exams. Readers can also download the PDF from the link given below. 

 

The Champaran Satyagraha (1917)

  • The peasants were compelled by the European planters to grow indigo, which restricted their freedom of cultivation.
  • The land rent was increased enormously.
  • Gandhiji reached Champaran in 1917 accompanied by Babu Rajendra Prasad, Mazhar -ul-Huq, J.B. Kripalani, Mahadev Desai to conduct a detailed inquiry into the condition of the indigo peasants. 
  • The baffled district officials ordered him to leave, but he defied the order and invited trial and imprisonment.
  • The payment of wages was meager for the peasants, which was not sufficient to earn their livelihood.
  • The peasants of Champaran were living under miserable conditions and were suffering from abject poverty.
  • This led the Government to appoint an Enquiry Committee in June 1917, with M.Gandhiji as one of its members.

 

 

The Bardoli Satyagraha (1928)

  • In Surat district, the Bardoli taluk was the center of this intensely politicised peasant movement.
  • In the year 1925, the taluka of Bardoli suffered from heavy floods and severe famine which affected the crops very badly. This situation led the farmers to face great financial troubles.
  • At the same time, the Government of Bombay Presidency raised the tax rate by 30 percent.
  • The activists of Gujarat such as Narahari Parikh, Ravi Shankar Vyas, and Mohanlal Pandya had a talk with the village leaders and sought the help of the prominent Gujarati freedom fighter Vallabhbhai Patel.
  • This led to the organization of a ‘No-Revenue Campaign’ by the Bardoli peasants including women.
  • The Government decided to crush the revolt.
  • The Pathans and tax inspectors intruded into the houses of the farmers and took away their property which also included cattle.
  • Finally, an agreement took place by the initiation of a Parsi member of the Bombay government. According to it, the government agreed to restore the confiscated property and also cancel the revenue paid for the year and also canceled the rise of 30 percent until next year.
  • It was only after the Bardoli Satyagraha that Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel became one among India’s important leaders.

 

Tebhaga Movement in Bengal

  • In Bengal, rich farmers (Jotedars) leased the farms to sharecroppers known as Bargadar or Bagchasi or Adhyar.
  • It was a sharecropper’s movement, which demanded two-thirds for themselves and one-third for the landlord. The crop sharing system at that time was known as barga, adhi, bhagi, etc., and the sharecroppers were called as bargadars or adhiars.
  • The Flood Commission had recommended tebhaga, under that the Bargadars (sharecropper) should get 2/3 of crop share and the Jotedar (landlord) should get 1/3rd of crop produce share.
  • The movement spread across the 19 districts of Bengal, but its intensity was more seriously felt in certain districts only. The police arrested the tenants and many of them were put behind the bars.
  • This action made the tenants more furious and they started a new slogan to abolish the whole Zamindari system.
  • Under the pressure of Tebhaga activists, most of the landlords had come to terms with the Tebhaga peasants and withdrew the cases filed against them.
  • The bill proposed to reform the bhagi system of the country, which caused the agrarian unrest.
  • The Tebhaga movement, to an extent, was successful, as it has been estimated that about 40 percent of the sharecropping peasants were granted the Tebhaga right by the landowners themselves.
  • The main slogan of the movement was – ” nij kamare dhan tolo”.
  • The movement was, however, less successful in the East Bengal districts. In 1948-1950, there was another wave of Tebhaga movement in these districts.
  • However, the East Bengal State Acquisition and Tenancy Act of 1950 was passed due to the initiation of the movement.
  • The Muslim league government led by the Suharwardy introduced the Bargardari Bill along with repression by force.

 

 

Indigo Revolt 1856-57

  • Indigo was identified as a major cash crop for the East India Company’s investments in the 18th Century. Indigo had worldwide demand similar to cotton piece-goods, opium and salt. Indigo planting in Bengal dated back to 1777. 
  • European Indigo planters had a monopoly over Indigo farming. At that time, there were two systems of cultivation of Indigo viz. Nij system and Ryoti System.
  • Under the Nij system, the European planters produced indigo directly on land which they directly controlled. Under Ryoti system, the planters forced the ryots or peasants to sign an agreement, so that they could get loans from planters to grow Indigo.
  • The revolt began as the peasants stopped paying rents. In March 1859, the revolt became more organized when thousands of Ryots in Bengal refused to grow indigo. The revolt began from Govindpur village in Nadia district of Bengal where Biswas brothers gave up indigo cultivation.
  • The European indigo planters left no stones unturned to make money. The farmers were totally unprotected from the brutal indigo planters, who resorted to mortgages or destruction of their property if they were unwilling to obey them.
  • If any farmer refused to grow Indigo and started growing rice, he was kidnapped, women and children were attacked, and the crop was looted, burnt and destroyed.
  • The Indigo revolt in Nadia district of Bengal in 1859 and was led by Digambar Biswas and Bishnu Biswas who organized the peasants to resist the force of planter’s lathiyals (armed retainers).
  • The Government thereby was forced to appoint a committee ‘Indigo Commission’ which was to look into the corrupt practices related to this system.

 

 

The Kheda Satyagraha (1918)

  • As a result of severe drought in Khera District, Gujarat Sabha, consisting the peasants, submitted petitions to the higher authorities of the province requesting the suspension of the revenue assessment for the year 1919.
  • However, the government refused to reduce land revenue and insisted on its full collection. 
  • Gandhiji supported the peasants and advised them to withhold payment of revenue till their demand for its remission was met.  Thus, the Kheda Satyagraha was started in March 1919 under the leadership of Gandhiji, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, N.M. Joshi, and several others.
  • The peasants of Kheda signed a petition calling for the tax for this year to be scrapped in wake of the famine. They warned that if the peasants did not pay, the lands and property would be confiscated and many arrested. And once confiscated, they would not be returned even if most complied. None of the villages flinched.
  • The revolt was astounding in terms of discipline and unity. Gujaratis sympathetic to the revolt in other parts resisted the government machinery and helped to shelter the relatives and property of the protesting peasants. 
  • The Government finally sought to foster an honorable agreement for both parties. The tax for the year in question, and the next would be suspended, and the increase in rate reduced, while all confiscated property would be returned.
  • Later it was decided that the rich Patidars peasants will pay up the land rent and the poor peasants were granted remissions.

 

 

If you have any updates about any days and dates that we should be included in this list of Peasant Movements in India, then please let us know in the comments below. We would love to hear from you.

 

Refrence:-

//www.yourarticlelibrary.com/

//selfstudyhistory.com/

//www.yourarticlelibrary.com

 

Free Study Material & Online Tests for Various Subjects

Current Affairs >>

Quantitative >>

Reasoning >>

English >>

History >>

Geography >>

Political Science >>

Economics >>

 

SSC >>

BANKING >>

INSURANCE >>

RAILWAY >>

 

Print Friendly, PDF & Email

21 thoughts on “Peasant Movements in India | Download PDF

  • November 14, 2018 at 9:39 pm
    Permalink

    Hello everyone, it’s my first visit at this website, and post is in fact fruitful in favor of me, keep up posting these articles or reviews.

    Reply
  • October 30, 2018 at 6:50 pm
    Permalink

    As a Newbie, I am continuously searching online
    for articles that can help me. Thank you

    Reply
  • October 10, 2018 at 4:08 am
    Permalink

    I couldn’t resist commenting. Very well written!

    Reply
  • September 26, 2018 at 3:40 pm
    Permalink

    I believe that is one of the such a lot important info for me.

    And i am glad studying your article. However
    wanna remark on few common things, The site style is perfect, the articles is in reality nice : D.
    Excellent activity, cheers

    Reply
  • September 6, 2018 at 6:28 am
    Permalink

    Heya i am for the first time here. I found this board and I find It really useful & it
    helped me out much. I hope to give something back and aid
    others like you helped me.

    Reply
  • September 6, 2018 at 6:06 am
    Permalink

    I like the valuable information you provide in your articles.

    I’ll bookmark your weblog and check again here regularly.

    I am quite sure I’ll learn lots of new stuff right here!
    Good luck for the next!

    Reply
  • September 5, 2018 at 12:50 pm
    Permalink

    What’s up friends, its wonderful article on the topic of teachingand entirely
    explained, keep it up all the time.

    Reply
  • August 31, 2018 at 6:11 am
    Permalink

    I have been browsing online more than 3 hours these days, yet I never found any attention-grabbing article like yours.
    It’s beautiful value enough for me. In my opinion, if all site owners and bloggers
    made excellent content as you did, the internet shall be much more useful than ever before.

    Reply
  • August 24, 2018 at 9:13 am
    Permalink

    Everything is very open with a precise explanation of the issues. It was definitely informative. Your website is extremely helpful. Many thanks for sharing!

    Reply
  • August 23, 2018 at 3:29 am
    Permalink

    It’s very effortless to find out any matter on web as compared to textbooks, as I found this
    the piece of writing at this website.

    Reply
  • August 22, 2018 at 9:09 pm
    Permalink

    Hello there, You have done a great job. I will certainly dig it and personally suggest to my friends. I am confident they will be benefited from this website for there competitive exams.

    Reply
  • August 13, 2018 at 5:16 am
    Permalink

    This is really interesting, You’re a very skilled blogger. I have joined your RSS feed and look forward to seeking more of your fantastic post. Also, I’ve shared your website in my social networks!

    Reply
  • August 12, 2018 at 8:33 pm
    Permalink

    Hi, Really great article. Thank you for the info which I was seeking for a long time.

    Reply
  • August 12, 2018 at 10:46 am
    Permalink

    I am really glad to read this web site posts which includes plenty of helpful data, thanks for providing such information.

    Reply
  • August 12, 2018 at 8:38 am
    Permalink

    I love it when folks get together and share views. Great website, keep it up!

    Reply
  • August 9, 2018 at 8:40 pm
    Permalink

    I wanted to thank you for this good read!! I definitely loved every bit of it.
    I have got you book-marked to look at new stuff you post…

    Reply
  • August 8, 2018 at 7:32 pm
    Permalink

    This is very interesting, You’re an overly skilled blogger. I have joined your RSS feed and look forward to seeking more of your fantastic post. Additionally, I have shared your site in my social networks.

    Reply
  • August 3, 2018 at 2:47 am
    Permalink

    This is really fascinating, You’re an excessively professional blogger.

    I’ve joined your feed and look ahead to in quest of more of your great post.
    Additionally, I’ve shared your site in my social networks https://www.promotiongifts.co.nz

    Reply
  • August 2, 2018 at 10:10 pm
    Permalink

    This is the right site for everyone wwho would like to find out about
    this topic. You understand a whole lot its almost tough to argue with you (not that I personally will need to…HaHa).
    You definitely put a brand new spin on a subject that’s been discussed for years.
    Great stuff, just wonderful!

    Reply
    • August 3, 2018 at 10:05 am
      Permalink

      Thank you for the feedback

      Reply

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *