India is a large and diverse country. Its diversity extends to both the culture and the geography of the country. Being such a huge country, it is no wonder it hosts such a large array of mountain and hill ranges dotted throughout its landscape. Examin brings a list of distinct mountain ranges present in India. Be sure to check out all the points as it may be asked in your next competitive examination:
1. The Himalayas
The Himalayas are the most renowned mountain peaks as it is scattered with the some of the tallest mountain peaks in the world. Compared to all the mountain and hill ranges provided in this list it is the youngest of them all! The Himalayas were formed by the collision of the Indian and Eurasian tectonic plates. Even though it can be considered as the most prominent mountain ranges in India, it is not entirely located in the country. This is also the only mountain or hill region in this list which stretches across Pakistan, India, China, Nepal and Bhutan. It is also the origin point of the most fertile river basins in the world, sustaining a sizeable portion of the world’s population. Facts of the Himalayan mountain Range:
- Tallest Peak: Mount Everest, Nepal (8848 m)
- Tallest Peak in India: Kangchenjunga (8586 m)
- Length of range: 2400 km
- The Himalayan range is gaining a height of 5 mm per year.
- The Himalayan range has the third largest deposit of snow after Antartica and Arctic.
- 9 of the world’s 14 tallest peaks originate from this mountain range.
- Red Panda, Snow Leopard, Tibetan Sheep, Musk Deer and other endangered species have made a home here.
- The Mount Everest was first scaled in 1953 by Sherpa Tenzing and Edmund Hillary.
- The Himalayas are the second least visited place in the world after Antartica
2. Western Ghats
The Western Ghats are also known as Sahyadri hills and is spread throughout most of the western region of the Indian peninsula. The Western Ghats has an abundant wildlife as it is considered among the eight most ecological “hotspots” in the world. It is been recognised as one of the UNESCO world heritage sites. The western ghats were formed some 150 million years during the breakup of Gondwana land. The Western Ghats are also home to some of the major perennial rivers like Kaveri, Godavari, Narmada and so on. It is also home to 28 recognised and protected forest range and parks in the country and are home to around 325 threatened species. Some major facts about the Western Ghats are:
- Tallest Peak: Annaimudi (2695 m)
- Length of the range: 1600 km
- The total area of the range: 16000 km^2
3. Eastern Ghats
The eastern ghats are much older than western ghats. And along with it, they form the famed Deccan plateau, which covers the much of the land area of the peninsular region of southern India. Unlike the first two ranges mentioned above, the Eastern Ghats consist of various smaller regions. Even though not as prominent as the rivers originating from the Western Ghats, many major rivers do originate from the Eastern Ghats which provides a crucial backbone to many people living in the lowland area. Many endemic species call the Eastern Ghats home and reside in around 15 sanctuaries and reserves located in the area. Some major facts about the Eastern Ghats are:
- Tallest Peak: Jindhagada (1680 m)
- Length of the range: NA (it consists of various regional clusters)
- The total area of the range: 75000 km^2
4. Aravalli Hill Range
The Aravalli hill range is located in the north-west section of India. Aravalli is derived from the Sanskrit word meaning the “line of the hills”. It is aptly named as it forms a line of hills of 692 km in length spanning from Delhi to the State of Gujrat. The first ever wildlife survey was conducted in the region in 2017 by the Wildlife Institute of India and several endangered species unique to the region have been sighted. This has prompted a major conservation effort by the government in the region. Several stone age tools have been dug here making Aravalli range a crucial part of our Indian history. It is home to several famous wildlife sanctuaries such as Ranthambore National Park and consists of various UNESCO listed forts. Some major facts about Aravalli Hill range are:
- Tallest Peak: Mount Abu (1722 m)
- Length: 692 km
- The total area of the range: 10400 km^2
5. Satpura and Vindhya Range
Satpura and Vindhya ranges are two distinct ranges which run parallel to each other over the Narmada river, Vindhyas to the north and Satpura to the south. These hill ranges are considered to be the dividing section between the North and South India. Many of the major rivers, such as the Narmada, Mahanadi, Tapti and Chambal, originate from these two hill ranges. Both Satpura and Vindhya ranges are culturally very significant to India, Indian mythology often mentions both of these mountain ranges quite frequently. Some of the major facts of Satpura and Vindhya ranges are:
Satpura Range –
- Tallest peak: Dhupgarh (1350 m)
- Length: 901 km
- The total area of the range: 518 km^2
Vindhya Range –
- Tallest peak: Sadbhavna Shikar (752 m)
- Length: 1086 km
- The total area of the range: 700 km^2 (approximately)
Thus we conclude our list of mountain ranges in India. If you want us to cover any more topics in the future, please do share it in the comments.
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