Minerals in Human Body & it’s Functionality

Scholarship Examination in India

Minerals are specific kinds of nutrients that the body needs in order to function properly. A mineral deficiency occurs when the body doesn’t obtain the required amount of a mineral. Minerals helps in building strong teeth and bones, skin, hair, proper function of nerves, muscle contraction, maintains heart functions, etc.

Some important Minerals necessary for Human Body are:

Minerals are important substances that help your body’s form and function on many different levels.

  • Minerals are Inorganic Substances.
  • At least 29 elements are found in our body.
  • Minerals have No Energy value but imbalance may cause diseases

There are two different types of minerals required to human body

  1. Macro-Minerals (or) Macro-Nutrients: (RDA > 200 mg/day)

These are minerals your body needs in larger amounts. They include Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride and Sulphur.

  1. Micro-minerals (or) Micro-Nutrients: (RDA < 200 mg/day)

 Your body needs just small amounts of trace minerals. These include Iron, Manganese, Copper, Iodine, Zinc, Cobalt, Fluoride and Selenium.

Functions of Various Minerals in Human Body



Deficiency/ Diseases



Component of bones and teeth, helps in blood clotting, Muscle contraction, Conduction of nerve impulses etc. Acts as cofactor of Myosin ATPase.

Defective bones and teeth, Tetany and rickets, Loss of muscle coordination

Milk, dairy foods, cereals (Ragi), meat, vegetables, fruits (Sitaphals)


Formation of bones and teeth, Component of nucleic acids, energy molecules and coenzymes

Poor body growth, weak bones and teeth.

Milk, dairy foods, Cereals, eggs, fish, meat etc.


Maintains water balance, blood pressure and nervous system.

Improper muscle contraction; nervous depression; loss of Na+ in urine, dehydration

Table salt, vegetables


Osmotic balance; muscle contraction; nerve impulse conduction

Nervous disorder; poor muscle control leading to paralysis

Vegetables, molasses, banana, date etc

Nutrition and Deficiency Minerals in Human Body:



Disease Due to Deficiency


Carrots, Papaya, Milk, Cheese, Fish Liver Oil, Green Vegetables etc.

Night Blindness


Fish, Meat, Nuts, Beans, Wheat etc.



Amla, Citrus Fruits like Lemon, Tomato, Orange, Sprouted Grains, Guava etc.

Scurvy, Swelling of Gums


Fish Liver Oil, Milk, Egg Yolk, Sunlight etc.



Nuts, Fish, Milk, Butter, Plant Oil etc.

Reproductive Failure


Soybean, Green Vegetables, Tomato, Olive Oil etc.

Non Clotting of Blood


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