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Major Crops grown in India | Types & Practices | SSC, Bank, UPSE

Major Crops grown in India

Major Crops grown in India | Types & Practices | SSC, Bank, UPSE

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Rabi Crops

  • Sown in October-November
  • Harvested in April-May.
  • Requires warm climate for germination of seeds and maturation and cold climate for the growth.
  • Example: Wheat, Oat, Gram, Pea, Barley, Potato, Tomato, Onion, Oil seeds (like Rapeseed, Sunflower, Sesame, Mustard) etc.

 

 

Kharif Crops

  • Sown in June-July when rains first begin (Monsoon crop).
  • Harvested in September-October.
  • Requires lot of water and hot weather to grow.
  • Example: Rice, Jowar, Bajra, Maize, Cotton, Groundnut, Jute, Sugarcane, Turmeric, Pulses (like Urad Dal) etc.

 

 

Zaid Crops

  • Grown between March-June between Rabi and Kharif crop seasons.
  • Early maturing crops.
  • Example: Cucumber, Bitter Gourd, Pumpkin, Watermelon, Muskmelon, Moong Dal etc.

 

 

Major Crops in India

Wheat

Highest per Hectare Yield: Punjab
Highest Producing Country: China
Highest Producing State: Uttar Pradesh
Major Producers: Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Bihar, Gujarat, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Uttarakhand
Rainfall: 20-100 cm (ideal ~75 cm)
Research Centres: Karnal, Haryana
Soil Type: Clay loam, Sandy loam
Temperature: 17-20 °C
Type of Crop: Rabi
Varieties: Kalyan Sona, Sonalika, Heera

 

Rice

Highest per Hectare Yield: Punjab
Highest Producer: West Bengal
Highest Producing Country: China
Major Producers: West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Bihar, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Assam, Tamil Nadu, Haryana
Rainfall: ∼ 150 cm
Research Centres: Cuttack, Odisha
Soil type: Clay/ Loamy
Techniques Used: Transplantation technique, Japanese Transplantation technique, new SRI technique
Temperature: ∼ 24 0C
Type of Crop: Kharif, Rabi
Varieties: Aman, Sali, Afghani, Aus, Boro, Palua

 

 

Cotton

Highest Producing Country: China
Leading Producer: Gujarat (According to the 2015 report)
Major Producers: Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Orissa
Rainfall: 50-100 cm
Research Centres: Nagpur, Maharashtra
Soil Type: Black soil (Highly water retentive soil)
Temperature: 21-30 °C
Type of Crop: Kharif
Varieties: Long Staple, Medium Staple, Short Staple

 

 

Jute

Annual Rainfall: 125-200 cm.
Highest per Hectare Yield: West Bengal
Largest Producer: West Bengal
Major Producers: West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh
Research Centres: Kolkata & Nilgunj, West Bengal
Soil Type: Sandy and Clay Loam
Temperature: 24-35 °C.
Type of Crop: Zaid
Varieties: White Jute, Tossa Jute

 

 

Sugarcane

Highest per Hectare Yield: Tamil Nadu
Highest Producing Country: Brazil
Largest Producer: Uttar Pradesh
Major Producers: Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Punjab
Rainfall: 75-150 cm
Research Centre: Lucknow
Soil type: Clayey Loamy Soil/ Black Cotton Soil/ Red Loamy Soil/ Brown Loamy Soil
Temperature: 20-26 °C
Type of Crop: Kharif, Rabi

 

 

Tea

Highest Producer: Assam
Highest Producing Country: China
Major Producers: Assam, Darjeeling (West Bengal), Meghalaya, Kerala, Himachal Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka
Rainfall: 150-300 cm
Research Centres: Tocklai, Assam
Soil type: Loamy soil which is acidic in nature and rich in organic matter.
Temperature: 20-30 °C

 

 

Coffee

Highest Producer: Karnataka
Highest Producing Country: Brazil
Major Producers: Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Odisha, Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Nagaland
Rainfall: 150-250 cm
Soil type: Well-drained forest loam
Temperature: 16-28°C
Varieties: Arabica and Robusta

 

 

Spices

Arecanut – Kerala, Karnataka, Tripura, Assam
Cardamom (Queen of Aromatic Spices) – Assam, Kerala, Tamil Nadu
Chillies – Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan
Cinnamon – Kerala
Clove – Kerala
Coconut – Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh
Ginger – Kerala, Meghalaya, Sikkim
Nutmeg – Kerala
Pepper (King of Spices) – Kerala
Turmeric – Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu
Temperature: 10-30 °C
Rainfall: 200-300 cm
Soil type: Loamy soil/ Lateritic soil
Location: 1000-2000m altitude of Western Ghats and other hilly areas
Major Producers: Kerala, Karnataka, 
Highest Producer: Kerala

 

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