In this article, Examin lists out the complete details of the IUCN Red List of Indian Species from the Red data book of IUCN. This topic is helpful for aspirants of various competitive exams like UPSC, SSL, Bank PO and etc. Readers can also download the PDF from the link given below.
The IUCN’s Red Data Book is the sourcebook that keeps a record of all the endangered and extinct species such as animals and plants. And there are different books for plants, animals, and other species.
The IUCN Red List/ Red book of Threatened Species was founded in 1964, is the world’s most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species.
As per the relative risk of extinction, the IUCN red list contains 7 categories. There are categories given below along with some Indian species.
Extinct (EX) – No known individuals remaining.
Extinct in the Wild (EW) – Known only to survive in captivity, or as a naturalized population outside its historic range.
Critically Endangered (CR) – The Extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.
Endangered (EN) – High risk of extinction in the wild.
Vulnerable (VU) – High risk of endangerment in the wild.
Near Threatened (NT) – Likely to become endangered in the near future.
Least Concern (LC) – Lowest risk. Does not qualify for a more at risk category. Widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category.
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species in India:
- Scientific name: Dicerorhinus Sumatrensis
- The Sumatran Rhinoceros is listed as Critically Endangered under IUCN red list
- These species are found in the foothills of the Himalayas in Bhutan and north-eastern India, all the way through southern China, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Borneo in Indonesia and the islands of Sumatra.
- The chief threats to these species are poaching and reduced population feasibility. These animals were hunted for their horns, skin and for some medicinal purposes.
- Scientific name: Cervus Canadensis hangul
- It is also called as Hangul and it is the state animal of Kashmir.
- These are found in the high altitude regions of Northern India and Pakistan. Now it has been seen only in Dachigam National Park in Kashmir
- The habitat destruction, over-grazing by domestic livestock, and poaching are the major threats faced by the Kashmir stag
Himalayan Brown or Red Bear
- The Himalayan brown bear belongs to the list of critically endangered animals
- It is also known as the Himalayan red bear, Isabelline bear etc
- These are found in Northern India, Northern Pakistan, Northern Afghanistan, Tibet and Nepal.
- This Omnivorous and hibernate during the winter
- The major threat was the loss of appropriate habitat and unscientific anthropogenic activities.
- The Pygmy Hog is the smallest and the rarest wild squid in the world and listed them as Critically Endangered under IUCN red list.
- These species of pigs in the wild are seen in Manas National Park. Previously, they were extensively spread in the Himalayan foothills extending from Uttar Pradesh to Assam.
Andaman White-Toothed Shrew
- Scientific name: Crocidura Andamanese
- The Andaman White-toothed Shrew is an endemic species of ‘South Andaman Island’.
- This species is endangered by habitat destruction due to Tsunami and other anthropogenic activities on the island, except inside the National Park.
Kondana Soft-furred Rat
- Scientific name:
- The Kondana Soft-furred Rat is listed as the ‘critically endangered’ species under IUCN red list.
- It is an endemic species to India.
- It is found in Singharh plateau near Pune in Maharashtra State.
- The main threats to these species are a loss of habitat, overgrazing of vegetation and annoyance from archaeological site and tourists.
- It is listed in the considered as vermin according to the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
Elvira Rat or Large Rock Rat
- Scientific name: Cremnomys Elvira
- This species is considered as the listed as critically endangered under IUCN red list.
- These species are found in the Kurumbapatti, Salem District in Tamil Nadu. This region is located in the Eastern Ghats.
- The major threats faced by these species are the loss of habitat due to mining, expansion of human settlement.
Namdapha Flying Squirrel
- Scientific name: Biswamoyopterus Biswas.
- This is species is listed as Critically Endangered under IUCN red list.
- The Namdapha Flying Squirrel found Namdapha National Park in the state of Arunachal Pradesh.
- Poaching is the major threat faced by these animals. These animals are poached for food.
Malabar large-spotted civet
- Scientific name: Viverra Civettina
- This species is listed as Critically Endangered under IUCN list
- Malabar Civet is an endemic species found in the Western Ghats of southern India.
- The major threats faced by these species are poaching, loss of habitat etc. The Malabar Civet is used for the extraction of musk.
- Scientific name: Ailurus fulgens
- The Red panda is listed as Endangered under IUCN as its population has declined up to 50%.
- The red panda is found in particular along the Myanmar-Yunnan border, India, Nepal, Bhutan and China.
- These are closely connected with montane forests with thick bamboo forest.
- The main problems faced by these species are the destruction of habitat, poaching, and disintegration. These species are used for different use including medicine, wild meat etc.
- In India, it is found in 19 protected or otherwise managed areas. This includes Barsey Rhododendron Sanctuary, Kanchendzonga National Park (NP), Kyongnosla Alpine Sanctuary and Shingba Rhododendron Sanctuary.
Indian Wild Ass
- Scientific name: Equus hemionus
- This species is evaluated as Near Threatened (NT). The population of wild ass has declined recently.
- In ancient times the Wild Ass had been seen throughout the steppes and desert steppes of the Russian Federation, the Arabian Peninsula, Mongolia, northwest India and northern China. But nowadays it is seen only in southern Mongolia and bordering China.
- The major threats to Wild Asses shoot from the illegal hunting. These animals are hunted for meat and for some medicinal purposes.
Asiatic wild dog
- Scientific name: Cuon alpines
- It is also called as the Dhole and Indian wild dog
- Dholes which are habitation generalist have vanished from the surface of the earth and list as endangered in IUCN red list.
- They are seen in particular in the Western and Eastern Ghats of the southern states and Central Indian Highlands, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, and West Bengal.
- They are killed for their fur and manufacturing the traditional medicines.
- Scientific name: Rucervus Eldii
- It is also known as Eld’s Deer and Thamin
- The species is listed as Endangered under IUCN list.
- Previously, this species was extensively distributed across appropriate habitats of Northeastern India, Myanmar, Thailand and Southeast Asia.
- Now it is found only in Keibul Lamjao National Park in Manipur.
- These animals are hunted for food and this is the major threat for the existence of this species.
- Scientific name: Trachypithecus Geei
- Listed as Endangered because of a serious population decline
- The golden langur is seen in the moist evergreen and moist deciduous forests
- The habitat loss and anthropogenic activities lead to the decline of the golden langur.
White-bellied Musk Deer
- Scientific name: Moschus Leucogaster.
- It is also known in the name of Himalayan Musk deer.
- These White-bellied Musk Deer are seen in the Kashmir, Sikkim, Bhutan, northern India, Nepal, and China
- There is a high trade-in Musk deer body parts, main pods in northeast India and China. It also faces the problems like habitat loss due to human settlement.
Hispid hare/ Assam rabbit
- Scientific name: Caprolagus Hispidus
- It is also known as Hispid Hare, Assam Rabbit, Bristly Rabbit
- Formerly the Hispid hare was seen along the foothill area of the southern Himalayas from Uttar Pradesh through southern Nepal, the northern area of West Bengal to Assam.
- Presently it is seen irregularly in India, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Nepal.
- The major threat to this species is the destruction of habitat happened due to the expansion of human development, agriculture etc.
Indian Hog deer
- Scientific name: Axis Porcinus
- It is listed as Endangered under IUCN red list
- Hog Deer traditionally found in Pakistan, all the way through northern and northeastern India, and marginally in southern China
- Scientific name: Macaca silenus
- It is also called as Lion-tailed Macaque, Wanderoo, Liontail Macaque
- This animal is endemic to the Western Ghats
- The Lion-tailed macaques prefer to stay in the higher canopy of a tropical evergreen forest.
- This listed as endangered species under IUCN list.
- The main threat to this species is habitat disintegration due to human activities.
- Scientific name: Pantholops Hodgsonii
- It is also called as Chiru
- Formerly it was found in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Chang Tang area of north-western Tibet
- These animals live in high altitude plains, and montane valleys comprising of alpine and desert steppe and pasture, distinguished by low vegetation cover and productivity
- The Tibetan antelope has been hunted for its under-fur and this is the major problem faced by this species.
- Scientific name: Trachypithecus Johnii
- It is listed as Vulnerable under IUCN red list
- The Nilgiri Langur are seen only in the Western Ghats in southwestern India
- This species is found in semi-evergreen, evergreen, moist deciduous forests in the lower height.
- This animal is hunted for its skin. The skin of Nilgiri langur is used for making drums.
- Scientific name: Nilgiritragus Hylocrius.
- It is listed as an endangered species.
- The current distribution of the Nilgiri Tahr is restricted to just about 5% of the Western Ghats in Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
- The major threats faced by Nilgiri Tahr is chiefly from domestic livestock. Apart from that the destruction of habitat also results in the decline of their population.
Ganges River Dolphin / Indus River Dolphin
- Scientific name: Platanista gangetica.
- It is also known as Ganges Susu, Blind River Dolphin, South Asian River Dolphin and Ganges Dolphin.
- These freshwater mammals are found in the Indus, Ganges-Brahmaputra river systems of the India, Nepal, Tibet, and Pakistan.
- These fishes are hunted locally for food, and to extract essential oil
- Water development projects like dams, pollution, hunting fishing are the major threat faced by these species.