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Important Scientific Instruments and their usage

Today we will be covering a very important topic from the Physics part of the General Knowledge section that is – Important Scientific Instruments and their Usage. The post is very helpful for the upcoming SSC and Railway Exam 2018.

Scientific Instrument is a tool used for scientific reason and area. Its instrument measures something such as position, temperature, pressure, direction and speed etc. Scientific Instrument is very useful day by day. All competitive examinations Railway, UPPSC, MPPSC, SSC and Bank asked one or two question related to scientific instrument.






An instrument used in aircrafts for measuring altitudes

Ammeter Measures electric current
Anemometer Used to measure the speed, direction and pressure of the wind.
Audiometer Measures intensity of sound
Barograph Continuous recording of atmospheric pressure
Barometer Measures atmospheric pressure and conditions.
Binoculars An optical instrument used for magnified view of distant objects.
Bolometer Measures infra-red (Heat) radiation.
Callipers Measures diameters of thin cylinder/wire.
Calorimeter Measures quantity of heat
Carburettor Used for charging air with petrol vapours in an internal combustion engine.
Cardiogram(ECG) Traces movements of the heart ,recorded on a Cardiograph
Cathetometer Determines heights and levels
Chronometer Determines longitude of a vessel at sea.
Cinematograph Used for projecting pictures on the screen.
Colorimeter Compares intensity of colours
Commutator Used in generators to reverse the direction of electric current.
Crescograph Used for measuring growth in plants.
Cryometer Measurement of low temperature.
Cyclotron Used for accelerating charged particles in microwave oscillator
Dilatometer Measures change in volume of substances
Dynamo Coverts mechanical energy into electrical energy
Electrometer Measures very small but potential difference in electric currents
Electrometer Used for measuring electrical potential difference.
Electroscope Detects presence of an electric Charge
Electron microscope Used to obtain a magnifying view of very small objects (20,000 times).
Endoscope To examine internal parts of the body
Fathometer Measures depth of the ocean
Fluxmeter Measures magnetic flux
Galvanometer Measures electric current
Gramophone Used to reproducing recorded sound.
Hydrometer Measures the relative density of liquids
Hydrophone Measure sound under water
Hygrometer Used to measure the moisture content or the humidity of air or any gas.
Hygroscope Shows the changes in atmospheric humidity
Hypsometer Determines boiling point of liquids.
Lactometer Measures the relative density of milk.
Machmeter Determines the speed of an aircraft relative to the speed of sound
Manometer Compares magnetic movement and fields
Manometer Used to measure atmospheric pressure
Micrometer Coverts sound waves into electrical vibration
Microphone Converts sound waves into electrical signals.
Microscope Used to obtain a magnified view of small objects
Nephetometer Measures the scattering of light by particles suspended in a liquid
Odometer An instrument attached to the wheel of a vehicle, to measure the distance travelled.
Ohmmeter Measures electrical resistance of objects
Ondometer Measures the frequency of electromagnetic waves(radio waves)
Optometer Used for testing the refractive power of the eye.
Otoscope Used for visual examination of the eardrum.
Periscope Used to view objects above sea level (Used in submarines).
Phonograph Used for reproducing sound.
Photometer Compares the luminous intensity of the two sources of light
Polygraph It simultaneously records changed in physiological processes such as heartbeat, blood pressure & the respiration (used as lie detector)
Pyrheliometer Used for measuring Solar radiation.
Pyrometer Measures very high temperature.
Quadrant Measures altitudes and angles in navigation and astronomy
Radar Radio, Detection and Ranging.
Rain Gauge Measures Rainfall.
Refractometer Measures salinity of solutions
Refractometer Measures a Refractive Index of a substance.
Sextant Used by navigators to find the latitude of place by measuring the elevation above the horizon of the sun or another star; also used to measure the height of very distant objects
Sextant Used for measuring angular distance between two objects.
Siesmograph Used for recording the intensity and origin of earthquakes shocks.
Spectroscope Used for Spectrum analysis.
Speedometer An instrument used for measuring speed of the vehicle.
Spherometer Measures curvature of spherical objects.
Sphygmomanometer Measures blood pressure.
Stethoscope Used for hearing and analysing the sound of Heart.
Tachometer To determine speed, especially the rotational speed of a shaft(rpm)
Tangent galvanometer Measure the amount of direct current(DC)
Telemeter Records physical happenings at a distant place(space)
Telescope Used for magnified view of distant objects.
Thermometer Measures Temperature
Thermostat Automatically regulates temperatures at a constant point.
Tonometer Measures the pitch of a sound
Transformer An apparatus used for converting high voltage to low and vice-versa without change in its frequency.
Transponder To receive a signal and transmit a reply immediately in satellites.
Venturimeter Measures the rate of flow of liquids
Vernier Measures Small sub-division of scale.
Viscometer Measures Viscosity of liquid.
Voltmeter Used to measure electric potential difference between two points
Wattmeter To measure electric power
Wavemeter To measure the wavelength of a radiowave(high frequency waves)


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